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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Urine

 
Urine is the substance that is filtered out of the blood by the kidneys, and is expelled through the urinary tract.
 
Urine is composed mainly of water, salt, urea and other organic materials.
The main component is water which gets absorbed into the blood through the walls of the small intestine. The colour of your urine is determined by how much water you drink, and how much of that water you use. Your urine should normally be clear, and if it is yellow, it means you are dehydrated. Urea, also known as carbamide, is the next largest component of urine. It is a neutralized version of ammonia, because ammonia is too toxic for the body. The process which does this is called the urea cycle, and it is performed in the liver. Creatinine is the next largest component of urine. It is a byproduct of creatine phosphate in muscle tissue. Creatine phosphate is used in the production of ATP from ADP, and afterwards turns into creatinine, which is filtered by the kidney, and expelled as part of urine. The next largest component of urine is uric acid. It is created in the liver by a process called xanthine oxidase. Without xanthine oxidase, the reactants, xanthine and hypoxanthine would be found at high concentrations in the blood and can cause renal failure, also known as kidney failure.
 
 

 Composition of Urine
Water 1.4 L/day                    Chloride ion 134 mEq/L
Sodium ion 128 mEq/L          pH 4.5-9
Potassium ion 60 mEq/L       Urea 1820 mg/100mL
Bicarbonate ion 14 mEq/L     Creatinine 196 mg/100mL
Uric acid 42 mg/100mL

Kidney Stones
 
When uric acid gets overproduced, it leads to gout and kidney stones. It crystallizes in the kidney, and the kidney stones form. Kidney stones usually pass on their own; however, when they are greater than 5mm in size, they treat the kidney stone. There are the treatments for kidney stones that either involves surgery, or a shock wave, or laser, to help fragment the stone into smaller pieces.

Urinalysis Clinic for the G.T.A.

How The Wastes Come Out