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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Kidney Failure

By definition kidney failure is:
 
The loss of the kidneys' ability to excrete wastes, concentrate urine, and conserve electrolytes.
 
This disease can happen many different ways but, the two most common causes are diabetes and high blood pressure. 
 
Diabetes causes the disease called Diabetic Nephropathy. This is a disease where the glucose doesn’t break down in your blood.  The glucose that wasn’t used or filtered in your blood acts as a poison for the nephrons in your kidneys.  The only way to prolong your kidney’s is to keep your blood glucose levels down. 
 
Another illness that can cause kidney failure is High Blood Pressure which is exactly as it sounds.  This high pressure can damage the small blood vessels in your kidneys which causes the vessels not to filter.  The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute recommends that every one with diabetes and reduced kidney function should keep their blood pressure below 130 over 80 mm Hg. Medications can help you control this. 
 
Another disease that causes kidney failure is called Glomerular Diseases. This includes autoimmune diseases, infection-related diseases and sclerotic diseases.  As the name suggests, glomerular diseases attack the tiny blood vessels (glomeruli) within the kidney.  The most common primary glomerular diseases include membranous nephropathy, IgA Nephropathy, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Evidence of protein and/or blood in the urine are usually the first signs of these diseases.  They can slowly destroy kidney function.
 
  Treatments include immunosuppressive drugs or steroids to reduce inflammation and proteinuria, depending on the specific disease.  Inherited and Congenital Kidney Diseases are also a very common disease and are rarely found in children until they are much older.  This is why it is very important for parents to have their children tested when they are young. 
 
 Finally the last cause of kidney disease is poisons and trauma.  A direct and forceful blow to the kidney or kidneys can lead to kidney disease due to the medication given for the injury. For example Aspirin, Acetaminophen, Ibuprofen and other painkillers can lead to the poisoning of the kidney’s if taken regularly.  The three stages of Kidney disease are Acute Renal Failure, Chronic Kidney Disease, and End-Stage Renal Disease. 
 
Acute Renal Failure (or AFR) is the sudden drops in kidney function caused by injuries, drugs or poisoning. AFR can lead to permanent loss of kidney function if it is serious enough. 
 
Chronic Kidney Disease is the most common in people and it is referred to as the “silent" kidney disease because it happens over a long period of time and people with this stage have and increased risk of dying from a stroke or heart attack.  End-Stage Renal Disease is the total and permanent lose of kidney function. People at this stage must undergo dialysis or transplantation to stay alive. 

  Signs of Kidney Failure
  Signs of kidney disease are increase or absence of urination, sleepiness or itchiness, loss of appetite or nausea and vomiting.  Your hands or feet may swell or feel numb and you may experience muscle cramps and darkening of the skin. Ways doctors can detect if you have a kidney disease is blood pressure measurement, tests for Microalbuminuria and Proteinuria which is a test of your urine which test for the absence or presence of either of these wastes or proteins.  Glomerular Filtration Rate (based on Creatinine Measurement) which is the increase of Creatinine in your blood or urine, Blood Urea Nitrogen which is the test for higher nitrogen levels in your urine and Renal imaging (taking pictures of your kidneys) and Renal Biopsy ( which is the abstraction of some of your kidney with a needle for testing.) This things will detect kidney failure because increased levels of wastes in blood mean they are not being filtered properly.

Avoid Kidney Failure
Ways to avoid Kidney disease or prolong the use of kidneys include: avoiding the use of painkillers whenever possible,  keeping a low blood pressure,  limit your intake of Protein, Cholesterol, Potassium and Sodium and finally, don't put any extra toxins into your body. Do not drink or smoke! This just makes extra work for your kidneys to do.

Hopefully, nobody you know or love will ever experience kidney failure. But if they do, remember, it isn't always fatal, and early detection is key.

How The Wastes Come Out